Assessment of risk of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome among patients attending a medical outpatient clinic in a tertiary health facility in South-West Nigeria

B O Adeniyi, O S Ilesanmi, A M Adebayo, A O Kareem, O A Junaid, A O Adeniji, G E Erhabor


Background. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there are few studies from Nigeria that have evaluated the prevalence of OSAS in medical outpatient clinics.

Objective. To determine the degree of the risk of OSAS among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, South-West Nigeria.

Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 208 medical outpatients using the Berlin questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS).

Results. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 53.8 (16.5) years, 110 (52.9%) were female, and 73.1% of participants had a high likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing (HSDB). Subjects with a high body mass index (BMI) were more likely to have sleep -disordered breathing when compared with those with a normal BMI (26 (96.3%) v. 7 (29.2%), p<0.001). The respondents with multiple primary morbidities were about 24 times more likely to have HSDB compared with respondents with a single morbidity (p=0.009). The odds of having HSDB was 16 times greater in those with hypertension compared with patients with asthma (odds ratio 16, 95% confidence interval 3 - 83, p=0.001). The Berlin questionnaire and the ESS were useful screening tools in the Nigerian setting.

Conclusion. In resource-poor settings in Africa, where there is an emphasis on screening and treating diseases of poverty, patients with medical conditions such as high BMI and hypertension should be screened for OSAS.

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